Hempel is sympathetic to the positivist attempts at defining cognitive significance in terms of experiential implications, but has doubts about the definability of the. by Carl G. Hempel. 1. Introduction rion of cognitive meaning, or of cognitive significance, many and of the empiricist meaning criterion provide no more. that the general intent of the empiricist criterion of meaning is basically sound, hempel mainly the second of the two distinctions ; in regard to the first,. I shall have to (A) If under a given criterion of cognitive significance, a sen tence N is.

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The symmetry thesis turns out to require qualification, not only with respect to predictions for events that occur only with low probability, cogmitive also for retrodictions derived by modus tollens.

These differences, however, require no further study here, for the purpose of the preceding discussion was simply to point out the role of general laws in scientific explanation, prediction, and hepmel Hempel The Critique of Logical Coognitive However surprising it may initially seem, contemporary developments in the philosophy of science can only be properly appreciated in relation to the historical background of logical positivism.

Two subtheses should be distinguished: In the simplest cases, explanations assume the following form:.

This problem has no analogue for deductive arguments: Since logical relations are non-temporal, Hempel may have taken the symmetry thesis to be a trivial consequence of his account, but deeper issues are involved here. Steve Rogowski – – Policy Press.

Salmon thought that this problem was peculiar to statistical explanations, but was corrected by Henry Kyburgwho offered examples of the following kind:. In the s and 60s, however, Nelson Goodman and Karl Popper were attempting to sort out the linkage between dispositions, subjunctives, and laws from distinctive points of view. HempelDordrecht, Netherlands: A meaning postulate defines the meaning of a concept and therefore, from a logical point of view, it must be true.


For an explanation to be acceptable, the explanans must be true. The second objection is about the conventional nature of rules of correspondence. Another consequence is that theoretical terms are not removable from a scientific theory.

The publication of Thomas S.

The same year he moved to the Signfiicance of Heidelberg, where he studied mathematics, physics, and philosophy. The explanans must be true. University of Minnesota Press, — Hempel – – 11 Rev.

Carl Gustav Hempel (1905—1997)

The alternatives advanced by Lobachevsky hyperbolic and by Riemann ellipticalhowever, which represent the surface of a sphere and of a saddle, respectively, violate both of those conditions, significancf in different ways. Assertions about God or The Absolute were meaningless by this criterion, since they are not observation statements or deducible from them.

The relative frequency of P with respect to Q is r The object a belongs to P Thus, a belongs to Q The conclusion ” a belongs to Q ” is not certain, for it is not a signifixance consequence of the two premises. But in either model, only logical aspects are relevant; pragmatic features are not taken in account. Thus, the theory T is not falsifiable.

John Earman, The Rise and Fall of Empiricist Criteria of Cognitive Significance – PhilPapers

In a series of studies about cognitive significance and empirical testability, he demonstrated that the verifiability criterion implies that existential generalizations are meaningful, but that universal generalizations are not, even though they include general laws, the principal objects of scientific discovery.

Significande consequence is that every theory is not falsifiable. Note that the inductive explanation requires a covering law: Even when information is conveyed using diagrams and simulations, for example, as long as it satisfies conditions CA-1 through CA-4 —no matter whether those conditions are satisfied implicitly or explicitly—an adequate scientific explanation is at hand.


Request removal from index. Sign in Create an account. Fundamentals cognltive Concept Formation in Empirical Science. Insofar as Hempel focused on logically equivalent formulations of lawlike sentences in addressing the paradoxes of confirmation, some may find it remarkable that he does not explore the consequences of logically equivalent formulations in relation to explanations. Consider the observation of a glass full of clear liquid.

The following is a very simple example.

Academic Tools How to cite this entry. Coauthored Works Hempel, Carl G. Carnap was receptive to the adoption of an intensional methodology that went beyond the constraints of extensional logic, which Hempel b would consider but leave for others to pursue Fetzer Two bodies have the same mass if, when they are on the pans, the balance remains in equilibrium.

Finally, the interpretation of science due to cognitie is not tenable. If the half-life of 3. They concern entities that are non-observable. The advantage of propensities over frequencies are considerable, since, on the propensity account, a probabilistic law no longer slgnificance affirms that a certain percentage of the reference class belongs to the attribute class.

If syntax is an emergent property of semantic complexity, for example, then grammar is not innate; and if mentality has and continues to evolve, Chomsky and Fodor are wrong Schoenemann ; Fetzer These are pragmatic, semantic, and syntactical procedures, respectively, and decisions have to be made in arriving at a theory about the language as the outcome of empirical research.

The reformulated conditions are:.