ANALISIS DE ORINA DE GRAFF PDF

ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.

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Análisis de orina: atlas color – Laurine Graff – Google Books

The specific gravity of urine is a measure of the density of the substances dissolved in it and it depends on the number of dissolved particles and their mass. This is so because protein accepts hydrogen ions from the indicator. The test strips consist of a ribbon made of plastic or paper of about 5 millimetre wide, plastic strips have pads impregnated with chemicals that react with the compounds present in urine producing a characteristic colour.

Blood may be present in the urine either in the form of intact red blood cells hematuria or as the product of red blood cell aanalisis, hemoglobin hemoglobinuria. The hemoglobin precipitates out with the ammonia sulphate but not the analiisis.

The control of urinary ketone analixis particularly useful in managing and monitoring diabetes mellitus type 1. Both contain an acid buffer to maintain the pH at a constant level. The presence of myoglobin in place of hemoglobin can be caused by pathologies associated with muscular damage rhabdomyolysissuch as traumacrush syndromeprolonged coma, convulsionsprogressive muscular atrophyalcoholismheroin abuse and strenuous physical activity.

Any amount of blood greater than five cells per microliter of urine is considered clinically significant, visual examination cannot be relied upon to detect the presence of blood. Automated readers of test strips also provide results using units from the International System of Units. Glucose concentrations vary in an individual, and a healthy person can present with transitory glucosuria after a meal high in sugars; therefore the most representative results come from samples obtained at least two hours after food is eaten.

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However, as these compounds are derived from the acetoacetic acid their existence can be assumed and a separate test is not therefore necessary.

Urine test strip – Wikipedia

Working and living links. A number of substances interfere with the Ehrlich reaction on the Multistix orinq A standard urine test strip may comprise up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents which react change color when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample. Two colour charts are provided that correspond to the reactions that occur with hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria and hematuria RBCs. Retrieved March 13, This thoroughly updated 5th Edition provides concise and carefully structured full-color instruction in the handling and analysis of non-blood body fluids.

Urine test strip

Automatic analysis of urine test strips using automated urine test strip analysers is a well-established practice in modern-day urinalysis. Likewise, a technical error of allowing the reagent pa to remain in contact with the urine for a prolonged period may remove the buffer.

Analisls haemoglobin that is released after the mononuclear phagocyte system located in the liver and spleen withdraws old red blood cells from circulation is degraded into its components; ironprotoporphyrin and protein. Some of the gram negative bacteria species that most commonly cause urinary tract infections Escherichia coliEnterobacterKlebsiellaCitrobacter and Proteus have enzymes that reduce the nitrate present in urine to nitrite.

For the paper strips the reactants are absorbed directly onto the paper. Large numbers of bacteria can react to reduce nitrite to nitrogen, which will give a false negative result.

The test does not measure beta-hydroxybutyric acid and analisjs is only weakly sensitive to acetone when glycine is added to the reaction. In order to differentiate pH in this wide range it is common to use a double indicator system comprising methyl red and bromothymol blue. Retrieved from ” https: Gradf with urine test strips under the guidance of a health professional is an effective method for monitoring the disease state.

Análisis de orina: atlas color

In many cultures urine was once regarded as a mystical fluid, and in some cultures it is still regarded as such to this day. Highly pigmented urine and contamination of the container with quaternary ammonium compounds, detergents and antiseptics also cause false-positive readings.

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Infections caused by TrichomonasChlamydia and yeasts produce leukocyturia without bacteriuria. The reaction is specific for glucose, as occurs in all enzymatic reactions, but it can provide some false positive results due to the presence of traces of strong oxidising agents or peroxide from disinfectants used on laboratory instruments.

Ascorbic acid vitamin C is known to interfere with the oxidation reaction of the blood and glucose pad on common urine test strips. The inflammation of the renal tissues interstitial nephritis can produce leukocyturia, in particular toxic interstitial nephritis with predominant eosinophils. The test for leukocyte esterase is purely indicative and should not be solely relied on for diagnosis, as it does not replace microscopic or urine culture examinations. Chemical tests for blood use the pseudoperoxidase activity of hemoglobin to catalyze a reaction between the heme component of both hemoglobin and myoglobin and the chromogen tetramethylbenzidine to produce and oxidized chromogen, which has a green-blue colour.

The balance is maintained through the controlled excretion of acidic hydrogens in the form of ammonia ions, gravf phosphateweak organic acids and through the reabsorption of bicarbonate through glomerular filtration in the convoluted tubules of the nephron. Retrieved 14 March The three ketone compounds appear in different proportions in the urine, although these proportions are relatively constant in different samples as both the acetone and the beta-hydroxybutyric acid are produced from the acetoacetic acid.

Many renal and urinary tract diseases may be asymptomatic for a long period of time.