This engineering classification system, which was developed by Bieniawski in , utilises the RMR classification of rock masses (Bieniawski, ). Bieniawski, Z.T. () Engineering Rock Mass Classifications. Wiley, New York. has been cited by the following article: TITLE: Interaction of Twin Circular. angles may have with respect to the excavation or slope. 7 of Erik Eberhardt – UBC Geological Engineering. ISRM Edition p direction. Bieniawski ().

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Retrieved from ” https: Stand up timeRock mass deformability modulus Em and Rock mass strength. Because of this limitation, something that is commonly done in practice is to base intact modulus values on test results done on good samples of intact rock from locations with competent rock, using either laboratory measurements of intact modulus or on an assumed ratio between intact strength and modulus for a particular rock type.

Open Journal of Civil EngineeringVol. For convenience in tunnel design, three charts are included which are commonly used to estimate these essential rock mass properties: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. In big and crowded cities with limited urban areas, it is sometimes necessary to build twin tunnels to overcome transportation problems. These values are derived from field surveys and laboratory tests.

In a city like Riyadh in Saudi Arabia, tunneling becomes very essential to solve effectively traffic conjunctions and associated problems. A note on tunnel support guidelines: Each of the six parameters is assigned a value corresponding to the characteristics of the rock.

If the design and construction process of twin tunnels are not understood and considered, damage to the tunnel lining or excessive ground surface settlement may take place. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that as the compressibility ratio, c, and spacing between tunnels decreased, the interaction effect between tunnels increased. In this study, the interaction between adjacent tunnels excavated through soils in Saudi Arabia has been investigated using FE analysis and the range of the encountered soil properties.

A number of sigmoidal equations have been proposed that give rock mass modulus as a function of intact modulus and a rock mass rating. The investigation considered the effect of spacing between the twin tunnels and ground conditions on tunnel behavior. The sum of the six parameters is the “RMR value”, which lies between 0 and Bieniawsmi, after 40 years of use, it has become apparent that it would be convenient for practical tunnel designers to have charts for the selection of rock support as a function of both tunnel size and rock mass quality.


The analysis focused on the effect of bieniawki twin tunnels on ground surface settlement, contact pressure between lining and ground, and change in tunnel diameter.

The details for calculating RMR are given elsewhere by edumine and provide a series of tables for RMR determination while the latest charts for the same purpose are given in the references and further reading. Geotechnical engineering Rock mass classification. A note of caution: Recently, after over 40 years of use, renewed attention was paid to the RMR Bieniawwski because of its applications to the assessment of rock mass excavability RME and, especially, its direct correlation with the specific energy of excavation SEE for TBMs used effectively to detect changes in tunneling conditions, in real time, thus serving as a warning of adverse conditions as construction proceeds.

This reflects the idea that, at high RMR, deformations will be dominated by intact modulus, whereas at lower RMR weathering and joint infilling will largely control deformation. A rock mass rating system provides a method of incorporating beiniawski of the complex mechanics of actual rocks into engineering design.

This approach has the advantage that modulus values are NOT overestimated at the higher range nor underestimated or overestimated at the lower range. At the spring line level, the excavation of bieniadski new tunnel had almost no effect on the far side of the old one. Journal of Mining Science. Historical developments, applications, and restrictions”.

To address this issue, Romana [5] defined Slope Mass Rating scheme that is based on the original Bieniawski’s bieniawwki but including a rigorous definition of the parameters considering the effect of the orientation of discontinuities.

In view of the improving technology for rock bolting, shotcrete and steel ribs, it was left to tunnel designers to modify these guidelines for other tunnel sizes, which served its purpose well.

For compressibility ratio of 0. Bieniawski [1] between and Engineering rock mass classifications: Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. On the other hand, and for low compressibility ratio, the new tunnel excavation significantly affected contact pressure at the near side of the old one. This is depicted in the chart below see Lawson Rock Bieniwwski Rating RMR has found wide applications in various types of engineering projects such as tunnels, slopes, foundations, and mines.


Otz, James Hassett, Ines Otz.

Rock mass rating

In the second chart, an improved relationship for the range of RMR greater than 56 is given. It is also adaptable for knowledge-based expert systems.

Rock Mass Rating presents some difficulties when applied to rock slopes, since the parameter that take into account the influence of the discotinuities orientation is introduced in detail for dam foundations and tunnels but not for slopes [4]. New adjustment ratings for application of Bieniawski classification to slopes. This ignores the possibility that the material in zones with poor rock will often be highly weathered, and it ignores the possibility that even without weathering a zone of poor rock may represent rock which simply has a lower intact strength, and that is why it became disturbed while zones of stronger rock on the same project did not.

The city started to construct big tunneling projects and it is expected in the near future to start building twin tunnels. In particular, the charts enclosed here for the RMR parameters intact rock strength and the combined parameters RQD and discontinuity spacing represented by the number of discontinuities per metershow the advantage of using the charts for better accuracy, rather than relying on the tables which show the average ratings for the ranges of each RMR parameter.

This page was last edited on 2 Novemberat This is more realistic than relying on one sigmoidal equation.

Rock mass rating – Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Views Read Edit View history. Moreover, the system was the first to enable estimation of rock mass properties, such as the modulus of deformationin addition to providing tunnel support guidelines and the stand-up time of underground excavations. Engineers informally classify rock structure into two general classifications: