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Characterization of cholinesterases in the damselfish Sergeant major Abudefduf saxatilis.

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Cholinesterase ChE activity has been used for many years as a biomarker of exposure to organophosphate gedtao carbamate pesticides. Recent studies have prpjetos that there could be biological factors that determine ChE type and levels; thus, juvenile Sergeant major Abudefduf saxatilis ChE enzymes were biochemically characterized. ChE enzymes found in the head and trunk were evaluated for their substrate preference and sensitivity to selective inhibitors.

The use of the head and trunk was chosen as a strategy to reduce dissection time and to ensure sample uniformity between stations. The results indicated that there are two types of ChE enzymes in the head: Atypical BChE is predominantly found in the yido. The results also indicated that the ChE activity found in A. Population genetic structure and connectivity in the widespread coral-reef fish Abudefduf saxatilis: We assessed geographic patterns of genetic variation and connectivity in the widely distributed coral-reef fish Abudefduf saxatilis at different temporal scales.

We sequenced two mitochondrial regions cytochrome b and control region and genotyped 12 microsatellite loci in a total of individuals collected from 14 reefs in two biogeographic provinces in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean and from three provinces within the Caribbean Sea. We used phylogeography, population genetics and coalescent methods to assess the potential effects of climatic oscillations in the Pleistocene and contemporary oceanographic barriers on the population genetic structure and connectivity of the species.

Sequence analyses indicated high genetic diversity and a lack of genetic differentiation throughout the Caribbean and between the two biogeographic provinces. Different lines of evidence depicted demographic expansions of A. The microsatellites exhibited high genetic diversity, and no genetic differentiation was detected within the Caribbean; however, these markers identified a genetic discontinuity between the two western Atlantic biogeographic provinces.

Migration estimates revealed gene flow across the Amazon-Orinoco Plume, suggesting that genetic divergence may be promoted by differential environmental conditions on gestap side of the barrier. The climatic oscillations of the Pleistocene, together with oceanographic barriers and the dispersal potential of the species, constitute important factors determining the geographic patterns of genetic variation in A.

Immunohistochemical detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in field collected damselfish Abudefduf sordidus; Pomacentridae embryos and larvae. Antibodies against polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs were used gidp determine if immunohistochemical methods could detect PCBs in embryos and larvae of a territorial coral reef fish Abudefduf sordidus; Fido collected from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean.

Sites with differing levels of contamination were sampled, one with relatively high sediment PCB concentrations of up to Immunostaining suggested that PCB concentrations projetls higher in fish larvae from the PCB contaminated site and that PCB concentrations within abnormal embryos were higher than normal embryos from the same nest.

This technique will be useful for detecting exposed populations in the field and assessing correlations prohetos adverse effects, particularly in potential indicator organisms such as Abudefduf sordidus.

Experimental mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis. Striped bass Morone saxatilis were infected intraperitoneally with approximately Mycobacterium prohetos, M. Infected fish were maintained in a flow-through freshwater system at 18 to 21??

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C, and were examined histologically and bacteriologically at 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 26, 36 and 45 wk post-infection p. Granulomas in these tissues underwent a temporal progression of distinct morphological stages, culminating in well-circumscribed lesions surrounded by normal or gidp tissue.

Mycobacteria were cultured in high numbers from splenic tissue at all times p. Standard Ziehl-Neelsen staining, however, did not demonstrate acid-fast rods in most early inflammatory foci and granulomas.

Large numbers of acid-fast rods were present in granulomas beginning at tido wk p. Between 26 and 45 wk p. Mild peritonitis was followed by granuloma formation in the mesenteries, but, with 1 exception, granulomas were not observed in the spleen or anterior kidney.

Granulomas in the mesenteries of M. Population energetics and ecology of the rock grasshopper, Giddo saxatilis. The ecology and bioenergetics of a population of Trimerotropis saxatilis Acrididae were examined in field and laboratory studies. This grasshopper species occurs on harsh, desert-like gestxo outcrops in the southeastern United States and constitutes one of the important consumers in those ecosystems.

Supplemental population data were collected from a nearby granite outcrop, Mt. The energy budget equation used was: Jaxk, ingestion and respiration were measured, and egestion was determined by difference. The parameters for T. Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium marinum granuloma in striped bass Morone saxatilis. An emerging epizootic of mycobacteriosis currently threatens striped bass Morone saxatilis ajck in Chesapeake Bay, USA.

Several species of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum, species resembling M. In this study, we describe the ultrastructure of developing M. The primary host response to injected mycobacteria was formation of large macrophage aggregations containing phagocytosed bacilli, M. Close association of lysosomes with mycobacterial phagosomes, as well as the presence of electron-opaque material within phagosomes, suggested phagolysosomal fusion.

Development of granulomas involved epithelioid transformation of macrophages, followed by appearance of central necrosis. Desmosomes were present between mature epithelioid cells. The necrotic core region of M. These cells appeared to be formed by compression of epithelioid cells and, aside from a flattened nucleus, did not possess recognizable organelles.

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Following the development of well-defined, paucibacillary granulomas, secondary disease was observed. Jaxk was marked by bacterial replication followed by disruption of granuloma architecture, including loss of epithelioid and spindle cell layers. In advanced recrudescent lesions, normal tissue was replaced by macrophages, fibroblasts, and other inflammatory leukocytes.

Large numbers of mycobacteria were observed, both intracellular and suspended in cellular debris. Phylogeography of the sergeants Abudefduf sexfasciatus and A. On evolutionary timescales, sea level oscillations lead to recurrent spatio-temporal projeos in species distribution and population connectivity. In this situation, applying classical concepts of biogeography is challenging yet necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying biodiversity in highly diverse marine ecosystems such as coral reefs.

We generated a mutlilocus data set that included ten morpho-species from 32 Indo-West Pacific localities. We observed a pattern of mito-nuclear discordance in two common and widely distributed species: Projetis sexfasciatus and Abudefduf vaigiensis. The other species, A. We then used coalescent-based simulation to characterize a spatially widespread but weak gene flow between the two species.

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We showed that these fishes are good candidates to investigate the evolutionary complexity of the discrepancies between phenotypic and genetic similarity in closely gidl species. In mammals, the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene, Nramp1, plays a major role in resistance to mycobacterial infections.

Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis is currently experiencing an epizootic of mycobacteriosis that threatens the health of this ecologically and economically jxck species. In the present study, we characterized an Nramp gene in this species and obtained evidence that there is induction following Mycobacterium exposure. The striped bass Nramp gene MsNramp and a amino-acid sequence contain all the signal features of the Nramp family, including a topology of 12 transmembrane domains TMthe transport protein-specific binding-protein-dependent transport system inner membrane component signature, three N-linked glycosylation sites between TM 7 and TM 8, sites of projetox kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylation in the amino and carboxy termini, and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site between TM 6 and TM 7.

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Phylogenetic analysis most closely grouped MsNramp with other teleost Nramp genes and revealed high sequence similarity with mammalian Nramp2. MsNramp expression was present in all tissues assayed by reverse transcription-PCR. Within 1 day of injection of Mycobacterium marinum, MsNramp expression was highly induced fold higher in peritoneal exudate PE cells compared to the expression in controls.

The levels of MsNramp were three- and sixfold higher on days 3 and 15, respectively. Injection of Mycobacterium shottsii resulted in two- five- and threefold increases in gene expression in PE cells over the time course.

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This report is the first report of induction of an Nramp gene by mycobacteria in a poikilothermic vertebrate. Growth effect on liver fatty acid composition of damselfishes genus Abudefduf collected in coral reef habitats of the Malaysian South China Sea. In order to understand feeding ecology, habitat use and migration of coral reef fish, fatty acid composition was examined in damselfish species Abudefduf bengalensis and A.

Proportions of saturated fatty acids SAFA ranged from The diet shift revealed by the fatty acid composition suggests changes in habitat use and migration scale in coral lrojetos environment of genus Abudefduf. Response of smooth rock skullcap Scutellaria saxatilisa globally rare plant, to fire. Scutellaria saxatilis Riddell smooth rock skullcap or rock skullcap, hereafter abbreviated as SRSa herbaceous perennial in the mint family, is a globally rare G3 plant.

In West Virginia, SRS is categorized as an S2 species imperiled and at high risk of extinction due to a very restricted range, very few [.

A unique Mycobacterium species isolated from an epizootic of striped bass Morone saxatilis. We isolated a Mycobacterium sp.

This isolate may represent an undescribed Mycobacterium species, based on phenotypic characteristics and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence.

Striped Bass, morone saxatilisegg incubation in large volume jars. The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis projehos, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped projjetos brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization.

Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately g of eggs each.

Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate?? The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was Mean survival between replicates ranged from Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost.

As survival was similar to McDonald giido, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society Ds of methanol leaf extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.