Cicero attende a isto na carta que escreve ao jurisconsulto Trebacio ; — «V6s escrewestes em palimpsesto. dos quaes Niebuhr tirou as Institutas de Gaio. tal polemica, expoe-se a seguir um fragmento do jurisconsulto romano Ulpiano , Logo no inicio de sua obra (Institutas ), Gaio estabelece a ordem das. wages, pay Hence: ingagiar & gai adj gay (= merry) Hence: gaitate gaio n [ Ornith.] institutor; instituto; instituta institut- see instituer instituta n -; institutas [ Rom. etc.; jurisconsulto etc.; jurisprudente etc. juri·dic (-rí-) adj juridical; persona.

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The most substantial amount of financial support has come from Mr. If such an awareness of structural patterns on the translator’s part enables him to state what such and such an English word of obvious internationality must be in French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, Russian, and numerous other languages as well, a similar ease of rebuilding such terms in the international language can be attained on the basis of a corresponding awareness of the structural patterns prevailing in the international language.

A complete list, with explanations in English, follows: In the case of words of Greek origin it happens quite often that formations which have the semantic value of derivatives are formally detached from what might be taken as their base. Where they do occur, they influence the prototype in exactly the same way as in all other cases. Please verify that you are not a robot. The Arabic word which appears in English as alcove can likewise be jurisonsulto in the restricted sphere, for it appears in Italian and Portuguese as alcova, in Spanish as alcoba, and in French as instututas.

Actually languages of more than nationally restricted use have always been established in their role as secondary or auxiliary languages in foreign parts by potent needs either of a purely utilitarian or of a generally cultural kind.

The suffix -al in fanatical is meaningless; it does not cause the word to differ in any sense from its synonym fanatic and justifies no discrimination between it and French fanatique, Italian fanatico, The same holds true for the English type voracious which has a “superfluous,” that is, a distinctively English and meaningless suffix -ious. Foreword The Interlingua-English Dictionary is the latest product of the long-term research program of the International Auxiliary Language Association.

Institutas gaio pdf

A dictionary of the international language poses problems sharply distinct from those confronting the makers of dictionaries of fully established languages with a verifiable tradition of usage.

On this fact we have based the principles and rules and the devices which have governed the making of the Interlingua-English Dictionary. They are given in brackets; the interlinguistic systems from which they were taken have not been identified. Upon closer examination, however, one is struck by the fact that the languages of the Western World are all in the habit of having recourse to classical and predominantly Latin word material whenever new expressions are to be coined, as well in cases where new ideas, facts, and things are to be named as also when a synonym for a traditionally available term is needed.


They are summaries of the foregoing analyses which serve to elucidate them and provide pertinent illustrations for them. For the purposes of this Dictionary all the affixes here listed have been considered active or autonomous. Stanton, Columbia University; Mrs. Morris died on August 15, For years Mrs. Eaton of IALA’s staff.

Deviations from this system are covered in the Dictionary by respelling with stress marks; e. The prototype of the former is causa, that of the latter cosa, from which the French initial ch- and final -e as well as the Portuguese diphthong -ou are peculiarly French and Portuguese deviations, explicable in terms of indtitutas French and Portuguese sound laws.

In many cases, however, they indtitutas become blurred by peculiar trends or historical “accidents,” and it becomes one of the most important functions of the prototype technique to give back to them their due scope.

All these things, precisely as in each one of the ethnic languages, are matters of style. In a considerable number of cases where ideas of full international range happen to be represented by numerous and etymologically quite unrelated terms, adequate renderings in the international vocabulary can be found by examining all the monolingual renderings in regard to their potential representation in the source languages as a whole.

Preface to the Second Edition. Thus, from the Latin point of nurisconsulto there was a perfect continuity in the semantic development of the verb intendere: This does not signify that an international word cannot be modulated by connotations, emotional overtones, and the like. Coastguards is still guardacostas. They are included in this Dictionary as being neither incompatible with its principles nor a necessary product of them. Of course no word is allowed to carry with it dependents not clearly recognizable as such.

Under their guidance its program of work instituats conceived and developed. Art] as in “Christ in glory” ; II. Next to Greek, the most important non-romance contributors to the international vocabulary are doubtless the Germanic languages and dialects. However, in some instances common sense seemed to dictate that even perfectly unambiguous terms should be further identified for the average user.

As a summary account of the whence and wherefore of the Dictionary, the following material is organized under several heads.

Contents. Preface to the Second Edition – PDF

The 27, most frequent words of the international language, however, cannot be thus identified. The former carries with it the base form iride iris supported by Italian ; the latter would justify the inclusion of iris even if it were not international in itself. We do not present it to the world as an inspired new departure, a cure-all, if it were generally accepted, for every ill resulting from the confusion of tongues. Financial support of IALA’s work has come from many sources.


Institutas gaio pdf

Some such words are base words only from the point of view of the international language while it is perfectly possible to pursue their formation in other languages to simpler elements.

Among the distinctive features of our approach to the question of the international vocabulary is the fact that the starting point must never be the question, “How do you say in the international language desk, doughnut, dumbbell, or whatever else happens to come to mind?

Christian who adheres to his faith under persecution confetti [I] n confetti; also: On the whole the 27, most frequent words of the English language would be included. Start display at page:. Search WorldCat Find items in libraries near you. Concepts in the sense here envisaged are naturally not always international.

Gallecia-gallecian-galleciano gallego [H] n Gallego, Gallegan, Galician 1. We do not present a new work detached and distinguished from theirs but rather the common answer to our quest and theirs for a standard presentation of the international vocabulary. However, that history tells us also that no national language has ever been used for auxiliary purposes unless its native speakers had established themselves as a people in a position of political or cultural hegemony.

Both are governed by prototype rules evolved from the contributing variants. Home About Help Search. For instance, while the modern French word tuer to kill shows no relationship to the Italian word uccidere of the same meaning, there are traces in French of the older occire, and even in Spanish, whose normal word for to kill is matar, an old verb corresponding with Italian uccidere and French occire has survived at least in the participial form occiso.

Galician language galleco n Gallego, Gallegan, Galician 1. Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Collinson of the University of Liverpool, and Dr. The form under which a duly admitted word enters the international vocabulary is the prototype or nearest documented or theoretical ancestor form common to all its variants as well as to the stems of their derivatives in the contributing languages; it is determined in such a way that its variants in the source languages and the stems of their derivatives deviate from it only in accordance with the characteristic behavior of the languages they represent with the proviso that the resultant form must never be conditioned by a trait restricted to one single contributing variant.